Meaning of Gene

what is gene:

Gene is a series of nucleotides, carriers of genetic information that are in charge of passing inheritance to descendants, i.e. from generation to generation. The word gene is of Greek origin “genos” which means “origin, race or birth”. In 1909 the term gene was created by the fitofisiologo, geneticist and botanist Whilhelm Johans.

Gene is a piece of DNA that contains the information needed to build a protein and simultaneously controls the manifestation of the character. Each individual carries two alleles to determine the character, one is the father and the mother.

Genes occupy a position determined, called locus, and fixed in the chromosomes, specifically in the cell nucleus. The gene consists of a sequence of RNA, known as ribonucleic acid, being the responsible for the synthesis of proteins in the cell, and a sequence of DNA, called deoxyribonucleic acid. In reference to this point, should highlight that not all genes are translated into proteins some occupy his function in the form of RNA.

The set of genes of the same species is called genome and it is estimated that a single genome this composed of 25 000 genes.  The science that studies the genes is known as genetics. Genes are divided into: dominant gene, recessive gene, gene operator and regulator gene. The operator gene acts in the functioning of other genes and regulator gene, as its name indicates it controls the synthesis and transcription of other genes.

Genes also affect the development of hereditary or genetic diseases a variation product in their sequence. Hereditary diseases depend on an autosomal chromosome or sex that is diseased or affected. In reference to this point, dominant inheritance is observed when an abnormal gene from one of the parents can cause an illness despite having joined with a normal gene from the other parent. At the same time, recessive inheritance refers that the disease requires that both genes within the couple are abnormal, now well, if 1 of the 2 pair is abnormal disease manifests itself or in a slight degree, what is certain is that the person will be a carrier of the disease.

Dominant gene

Refers to the Member of a pair of allelic which is revealed in a phenotype, either in double dose (homozygous condition), i.e. the dominant gene received a copy from each parent, or in single dose (heterozygous condition), in which one of the parents provided the dominant allele of a gamete. As a result, a dominant phenotype is determined by a dominant allele and dominant genes are represented with a letter uppercase.

Recessive gene

The recessive gene is applied to the Member of a helpless allelic pair of manifest when it is located opposite the other dominant character. The alleles that determine the recessive phenotype need be alone to demonstrate or reveal himself. In addition, these genes are represented with lowercase letter.

Gen condominante

The condominante gene is characterized because although this in heterozygous condition originates a character other than the purebred.

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