the first hunters settled in the area more than 10,000 BCE
The Stone Age was followed by a flourishing Bronze Age
around 1,000 BCE Around 500 possibly new people arrive in
the land settling in the islands. It is the North Germans
who settle down as fishermen and sailors. Some place names
continue to testify to the mythology that developed during
this period: Odin, Thor and Freja.
During the Viking Age (8-10th century), traders, sailors
and pirates from not only Denmark but also the rest of the
North moved west to England and to the east far into Russia.
They dominated the seas in Northern Europe, and it was also
during this period that the first signs of a kingdom were
formed in Denmark.
Archaeological excavations show that the most important
urban centers were Roskilde, Hedeby and Jelling. After
Danish victories over the Germans, the river Ejderen became
the most stable Danish border to the south, and a large wall
was erected south and west of Hedeby.
After a series of battles among rival kings, the center
of power in the 10th century was moved to Jelling, where
Gorm became king of Jutland. His son, Harald Blåtand, is
given credit for the gathering of Denmark and the conquest
of large areas in Norway.
The subsequent kingdoms extended the Danish power to
Sweden, and with the Kalmar Union in 1397 Margrethe I
succeeded in uniting Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland,
Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. However, the
united Nordic countries had a short life span.
The introduction of Protestantism into Denmark and the
ever-stronger position of Hanseatic cities in Northern
Germany meant a corresponding weakening of the Danish
military force. The Danish kings participated in numerous
wars against Sweden and Germany in particular, and with the
gradual weakening of the nobility, the king was eventually
able to cast himself as a sovereign ruler, enabling him to
issue laws to be followed throughout the country.
Inspiration from the French Revolution and the continued
struggle against feudalism and monarchy enabled the end of
the 18th century (1792) to abolish the stave band and thus
the transfer of the land to the Danish peasants. In 1814, a
school reform was introduced, imposing a compulsory
education and during the same period agriculture was rapidly
developing. The account of feudalism had removed a number of
important barriers to the development of the productive
The Napoleonic Wars brought peace to an end between
Denmark and Norway, and after Napoleon's defeat, Sweden
attacked Denmark and annexed with the Kiel Peace in 1814
Norway (see The Danish Age in Norway).
The period after 1814 was to some extent characterized by
economic crisis due to war, the loss of Norway and because
Hamburg replaced Copenhagen as a trade and financial center
in Northern Europe. It was not until about 1830 that this
crisis was over, prices of agricultural products stabilized,
trade increased and industrialization began.
After the revolutions in Europe in 1848, King Frederick
VII convened a constitutional assembly that abolished the
monarchy and instituted a parliamentary monarchy. The
Constitution of 1849 guaranteed freedom of the press,
religion and assembly. Nationalism and liberalism were the
main ideological trends of the period.
The conflict with Germany over counties Schleswig and
Holstein reinforced this nationalism, but by the war against
Prussia and Austria in 1864, Denmark lost. The counties as
well as Southern Jutland were lost and the Liberal Danish
government had to step down.
Copenhagen - city in Denmark
Copenhagen, Denmark's capital and largest city, located by the Sound along
the strait between Zealand and Amager. The metropolitan area around the
metropolis is constantly growing, and several administrative units are part of
Greater Copenhagen. In a narrow sense, the city of Copenhagen includes the three
municipalities of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg and Gentofte. The interconnected
city, the Metropolitan Area, is located in 18 municipalities and has DKK 1.30
million residents (2017). In addition, settlements such as Hørsholm, Farum,
Taastrup and Greve Strand are considered to be included in Greater Copenhagen.
Often the concept of the Capital Region of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg as well
as all the municipalities in the former Copenhagen, Frederiksborg and Roskilde
counties and Stevns municipality are used. Total 2.04 million residents (2017).
The Capital Region is another administrative unit, which exclusively
comprises the municipalities of Northeast Zealand and Bornholm. Total 1.81
million residents (2017).
Copenhagen also constitutes an administrative unit, see the City of
Copenhagen's old town within the looped ramparts is Greater Copenhagen's
functional core, which also includes the neighborhood between HC Andersens
Boulevard and the railway terrain.
Here are the institutions that characterize a capital: Christiansborg with
the Folketing, the Royal House's Amalienborg, ministerial buildings,
the Supreme Court, the Stock Exchange, Danmarks Nationalbank and the cathedral
(Vor Frue Kirke) in addition to the National Museum, the Royal Library, the
Royal Theater and other cultural institutions.
The University of Copenhagen has also retained premises in the inner city,
but otherwise has its departments spread over several districts. The inner city
also houses the headquarters of a large number of companies and
organizations; in addition, department stores, a rich selection of specialty
shops, eateries and rides.
The interest in living centrally in the city is great, and especially
neighborhoods by the harbor such as Nyhavn and the area by Amaliehaven have been
transformed into exclusive homes. Christianshavn and the port areas at Islands
Brygge and on the Zealand side have also been built up with offices and housing
for people with high incomes in line with the winding up of industry and port
In a semicircle around the inner city lie the so-called bridge
quarters; Østerbro, Nørrebro, Vesterbro, Islands Brygge and Amagerbro were
built in 1870-1920.
Most of the commercial buildings that arose in backyards and on vacant areas
in the outer bridge quarters have now disappeared, and the bridge quarters
appear as residential areas, on whose access roads and ring streets, among other
things. are many shops with both groceries and select items.
Especially Vesterbro and the inner Nørrebro were built as speculative
buildings with small apartments and low technical standards. Many of these homes
have been demolished, rebuilt or combined since the 1970's as part of extensive
renovations, which has led to rising rents and a considerable replacement of the
The outer parts of Copenhagen Municipality (Enghave, Valby, Vigerslev,
Vanløse, Brønshøj, Utterslev and Sundbyerne) were, like the nearest surrounding
municipalities, built in 1920-60. The buildings here are predominantly a mixture
of detached houses and low-rise buildings, often in green, park-like