Around the 13th century struck the people catch and
ndowe settled in the area now known as Rio Muni.
They displaced the pygmy population (bayele), of which there
are today only small groups. The Fang and Ndowe people also
spread to the islands, which in the 15th century were
referred to as "densely populated".
After dividing Africa into colonies, Río Muni along with
the islands came to be called Equatorial Guinea. The
Portuguese, the Dutch and the English made ndowe the people
their allies and middlemen in the slave trade, while the
capt people who did not know slaves retreated to the
jungle, convinced that the Europeans were human eaters.
the kings of Portugal perceived themselves as lords over
Equatorial Guinea and conferred with the San Ildefonso and
Pardo Treaties in 1777 and 78 the district of Biafra, to
gain the right to the Spanish territories of southern
Brazil. Yet they fought for the islands, which were
initially occupied by French and British until Britain took
full control and founded the first cities. They made freed
slaves their agents and thus helped to create a leading
class that continues to exist today.
In 1843-58, Spain militarily recaptured the area and its
"rights" were recognized. Cocoa, coffee and timber became
the country's economic focal point, but it was controlled
far away and not very efficiently. During the Spanish Civil
War in 1936-39, the colonists supported General Franco, who
subsequently gave them almost total power over the country.
Admiral Carrero Blanco - Prime Minister of Franco - owned
Equatorial Guinea's largest cocoa plantation.
From 1963, the colony gained a form of internal autonomy
that allowed the existence of 3 legal political
organizations: MONALLY (Movimiento Nacional de Liberación de
Guinea Ecuatorial, Equatorial Guinea National Liberation
Movement), MUNGE, (Movimiento de Unión Nacional de Guinea
Ecuatorial, Equatorial Guinea ) and IPGE (Idea Popular de
Guinea Ecuatorial, Equatorial Guinea People's Idea).
Meanwhile, international pressure on Spain increased,
recognizing Equatorial Guinea's independence, proclaimed on
October 12, 1968.
After independence, IPGE leader Francisco Macías Nguema
took over the presidential post in a coalition between IPGE
and two important shelled groups of MUNGE and MONALIGE that
emerged during the struggle for independence.
Almost one year after the takeover of power, Macías
launched a violent suppression of the opposition, on the
pretext of a supposed coup d'état. Thousands were sent to
prison, murdered or disappeared and 160,000 sent into exile.
While Amnesty International condemned the disappearance of
two-thirds of the members of the National Assembly, Macías
Nguema escalated the repression: all political parties were
dissolved and replaced by the Partido Unico Tradicional de
los Trabajadores (Workers Traditional Unity Party, POINT).
He declared himself president of a lifetime and a top
teacher in folk education, science and culture. The
organization "Youth in March with Macías" was responsible
for the spread of terror, and it extended to Catholic clergy
and Protestant missionaries.