COUNTRYAAH, business has been strongly characterized by the fact that
New Zealand is an isolated country with a small domestic
market. The economy has become very dependent on conditions
on the world market. Up to the last decade, exports have
been dominated by some agricultural commodities, and the
market has been in Western Europe, primarily the United
Kingdom. From the beginning of the 1970s, growth in the
economy stagnated, unemployment rose and the debt burden
Since the mid-1980s, a number of changes have been made
to provide new growth power in the economy. The state's role
has been reduced, and business has been liberalized.
Companies are now increasingly exposed to foreign
competition, and the economy is more open than in the past
half-century. Growing difficulties in getting agricultural
products sold on the EU market have meant that New Zealand
has expanded its trade with countries around the Pacific and
in the Middle East. Since 1990, there have been no trade
barriers between New Zealand and Australia. In recent years,
the business sector has expanded and the industry is
developing - now towards a higher degree of raw material
processing and greater specialization.
More than half of New Zealand's land is pasture and only
2 percent go. In agriculture, therefore, animal production
dominates. In 1995, wool, meat and dairy products accounted
for almost 3/4 of agricultural production and for about 40
percent of export value. Animals for meat production are
kept throughout New Zealand, dairy cows mainly on the North
Island and merino sheep on the south island slopes.
The arable farm is concentrated to the Canterbury plain
on the south coast of the South Island with the cultivation
of wheat, fodder seed, fodder root fruits, potatoes and
legumes. Furthermore, New Zealand produces apples, pears and
kiwi for export, and as the country's wines become
internationally known, the area of vineyards increases.
Agriculture is large-scale, highly mechanized and highly
Of the acreage, 28 per cent is wooded. The original
forest is increasingly protected in national parks and the
like and instead the implanted, fast-growing species of
pine (Pinus radiata) has become of great
economic importance. A significant part of the timber goes
to the domestic forest industry, which has expanded greatly.
Along the long coast there are many commercially valuable
fish species, and frozen fish is an important export
commodity. Deep-sea fishing with trawl was developed until
1983, when it was limited to a few species, including tuna.
The total catch nevertheless increased from 215,000 tonnes
in 1980 to 542 100 tonnes in 2012. During the 1980s fish
farming started in New Zealand, which has led to increased
exports of seafood as well as eel, the only domestic
freshwater fish of importance.
Minerals and energy
On the west coast of the North Island, iron sand is used,
which is used in the domestic steel industry, and in
addition New Zealand produces small amounts of gold. On the
South Island, coal is mined, which is the raw material in
the country's approximately ten thermal power plants. Coal
resources are considerable but mining is less profitable.
The mountainous and rainy New Zealand has great
hydropower potential; about 2/3 of the electrical energy
comes from hydropower plants. In the area of Lake Taupo on
the North Island, geothermal energy is extracted, which
accounts for a few percent of the electricity demand.
Natural gas deposits have become increasingly important. Gas
is extracted partly in the Maui field between the North and
South Island and partly on the North Island. It is used,
among other things, to produce synthetic gasoline. Oil is
also extracted in several places - on a limited but
increasing scale. With a successful energy policy, New
Zealand has reduced its dependence on imported oil.
Industrialization only started after the Second World
War. More than 2/3 of all companies are located on the North
Island, with the center in the Auckland region. Most
important is the food industry with slaughterhouses,
freezers, dairies, dry milk factories and canning factories.
The country's largest companies include forest industries,
which produce sawn timber and pulp, mainly for export, as
well as New Zealand Steel Ltd with steel mills south of
Auckland and aluminum plants in the southern South Island.
Other important industries are hardware and metal products,
chemical industry and textile manufacturing (the latter two
are aimed at the domestic market). Border protection has
been reduced for industry, which is now subject to increased
In exports, the largest commodity group is still products
from the livestock and forest industries. With regard to
imports, a gradual shift has taken place, which reflects the
development of the domestic industry. Mineral and chemical
raw materials increase their share of import costs, while
transport means as well as machinery and other workshop
products decrease. New Zealand's most important trading
partners are China, Australia and the United States.
Tourism and gastronomy
The country was visited in 2012 by 2.5 million foreign
visitors. Most visitors come from Australia, Japan, the
United States and the United Kingdom. The development was
slowed down for a long time by the great distances to other
countries, but the tourist flow has increased sharply during
Visitors are attracted mainly by the peculiar nature and
Maori culture. One of the most visited tourist destinations
outside the major cities of Auckland, Wellington and
Christchurch is Rotorua with surrounding volcanic area on
the North Island. There are, among other things, hot springs
and spraying geysers. Rotorua is also an old Maori center
with a craft school and a reconstructed pre-European village
as well as other memories from the long history of Maori in
New Zealand's different plant and bird life attracts
numerous visitors, including to the country's national parks
and protected areas. On the North Island is the Egmont
National Park on the west coast, which is also a popular
skiing area in the winter. Otherwise, skiing has its center
on the South Island around Queenstown, which is a popular
tourist destination both winter and summer. The magnificent
alpine scenery can be experienced both by steamboat ride on
the 70 km long Wakatipus lake and through hikes on the many
routes in the region.
Further west is the Fiordland area, a difficult to access
coastal landscape with deep fjords. The only one that can be
reached by road is Milford Sound, which with its 1,700 meter
high cliffs is one of the most impressive.
The filming of JRR Tolkien's trilogy "The Lord of the
Rings" (2001–03) took place largely in New Zealand. The
success of the films around the world led to an increased
tourist flow to the country's scenic areas.
Dairy products and sheep or lamb dominate, together with
fresh fruit and fish, New Zealand cuisine. The cooking is
characterized by the old British tradition, but the Maoris
also had a certain influence. Roast lamb, large steaks,
deep-fried potatoes and deep-fried fish are standard menus,
but pork with tamarillos (pork with tree tomatoes)
and stews combining deer and fruit are examples of processed
The Maori influence is evident mainly in fish and seafood
dishes: marinated raw fish and mussels such as paua
pipis and toheroa are delicacies, often served
with kumara (sweet potato) or rauriki (a
thistle species reminiscent of spinach).
Both meat and fish traditionally prepare the Maori in a
hangi, an earthen oven in which the raw material,
wrapped in leaves, is laid on hot stones, covered with tea
bushwood and then allowed to cook steam. Otherwise you will
notice oysters and lobster as well as grouper, eel and