Despite the peace agreement, talks continued. The UN and even Washington – his old allies – put pressure on Savimbi to make him comply with the agreement and halt the attacks. Some senior members of UNITA – especially those who had obtained government posts – showed signs of willingness to reach final peace. According to COUNTRYAAH, Savimbi had 4 ministers, 7 deputy ministers and 77 members in the People’s Assembly. At the same time, the assessment was that a partisan revolt facing better-equipped military forces than the previous years would give UNITA the leader few chances of victory. But developments in the fighting in the Democratic Republic of Congo reduced UNITA’s opportunities. The Government of Angola supported Kabila in the Congo and at the same time was able to recapture territories previously under UNITA control.
In April 1999, the government announced that it had decided to join a regional “self-defense front” made up of Zimbabwe, Namibia and you. Rep. Congo. This development reflected that regional conflicts were no longer within the boundaries of the former colonial rulers. At the end of 1999, the government believed it could see the end of the armed conflict in the country. The background was the government’s streak of victories in previous months, which included made it possible to occupy UNITA’s main cities, Andulo and Bailundo.
However, after a period of relative calm, the fighting between the government and UNITA resumed in 2000. In light of the ongoing armed conflict, the UN Security Council decided to extend its peace mission in the country, which since 1995 had worked to mediate between the government and UNITA.
On February 22, 2002 UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi fell in battle in the province of Moxico in the central part of the country. His place was taken over by the organization’s Vice President, Antonio Dembo. Even before Savimbi’s death, the government had called for an end to the fighting, and President dos Santos now declared that Savimbi’s death had paved the way for the election, but that it was necessary to create safe conditions and he had therefore contacted Dembo.
In April 2002, the government and UNITA signed a formal ceasefire agreement, and four months later UNITA finally disbanded its armed branch, prompting the defense minister to declare: “the war is over”. The civil war in Angola – the longest lasting on the African continent – had lasted 27 years.
In February 2003, the UN launched an operation to monitor the peace process. UNITA, now transformed into a political party, in June elected Isaias Samakuva as new chairman.
The country faces major challenges in the reconstruction process. Many roads and railways need to be rebuilt. Before the war – in 1973 – it had a road network of 37,000 km, but during the war it was almost impossible to use the road network unless you were driving in armed convoys. Many bridges were blown into the air and bus operation between the cities set. Before independence, agriculture had flourished, but it was decaying as a result of the destruction of infrastructure, uncertainty and customs duties on export goods. Less than 10% of the country’s land can be used for food production. It is due to poor soil conditions and lack of water.
- According to AllCityPopulation, the capital city of Angola is Luanda with a population of 6,400,000 (2014 census). Other major cities include Lubango with a population of 732,000, Huambo with a population of 666,000, Cabinda with a population of 598,000, Benguela with a population of 513,000 (2014 Census).
In January 2004, Human Rights Watch reported that the latest estimates showed that $ 4 billion had disappeared. US $ of Angola’s oil revenue. This corresponds to almost 10% of the country’s GDP and to the value of all social programs implemented in the period 1997-2002. The report laid the responsibility for the many billions of disappearance on corruption and bad governance. After Nigeria, Angola is the largest sub-Saharan oil exporter.
In April, intelligence and security chiefs from 20 African countries met in Luanda to find ways to control mercenary activities in Africa . The meeting took place the day after Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe and Angolas’ dos Santos discussed the possible extradition of 70 mercenaries from the US, Britain and Spain. They were arrested in March at the airport in Zimbabwe’s capital Harare.