Bahrain has a form of mixed economy, where the state wholly or partly owns all the oil and natural gas industry and heavy industry. Light industry, construction and trade and finance are privately owned.
According to COUNTRYAAH, agriculture focuses mainly on fruits and vegetables, but is of little importance to the country’s economy. Only 3 percent of the land is cultivable, mainly in connection with springs and oases in the north, and 20 percent of the area is useful as pasture. Previously, pearl fishing was Bahrain’s main source of income, but this role has been taken over by oil recovery. Pollution of the waters of the Gulf of Persia has had a very negative impact on the fishing industry.
Oil was discovered in 1932. It has given Bahrain an economic boost and has long been the backbone of the economy. However, the oil reserves are reduced and are expected to be depleted before 2020, with unchanged withdrawals, however gas supplies are expected to last longer. The authorities have therefore made every effort to make the economy more versatile, and the importance of the industry has increased. It mainly covers the aluminum, cement and plastics industries and the shipbuilding industry.
- According to AllCityPopulation, the capital city of Bahrain is Manama with a population of 398,000 (2014 estimate). Other major cities include al-Muharraq.
Bahrain has been united with Saudi Arabia through a 25 km long road on built banks and over five bridges. In the country there are several good ports and an international airport, Muharraq.
There are direct and indirect negative effects on the fragile shore of the Persian Gulf (only 5 m deep in the area). The situation for the already heavily stressed ecosystems, mainly coral reefs, underwater beds and mangrove-grown tidal zone, is expected to worsen further.