The Kidane government participated in the peace talks under the North American leadership in London, which also had the participation of the main guerrilla groups. The goal was to reach an agreement that could prevent civil war. In late May, Kidane resigned, while the Ethiopian people’s revolutionary Democratic Front took control of Adis Ababa.
The 36-year-old leader, Meles Zenawi, took over as interim president until a multi-party conference on the country’s future could be held. He promised at the same time to end the civil war and to bring the country out of the famine. Three months later, Parliament was reopened, a new constitution was adopted and Meles pledged to hold new elections within a year. In addition, the transition president promised to honor the financial commitments made by the deposed government and to respect the will of the Eritrean people. A short time later, the Eritreans conducted a referendum that confirmed the desire for independence. Estimates showed that over a million Ethiopians had been starved to death over the past 20 years and another 1 million had been forced to flee to neighboring countries.
- COUNTRYAAH: Find major trading partners of Ethiopia, including major exports and major imports with latest trade value and market share as well as growth rate.
|Gross domestic product (GDP)||$ 200,600,000,000|
|GDP growth rate||10.90%|
|GDP per capita||$ 2,200|
|GDP by sector|
|Proportion of the population below the national poverty line||39%|
|Distribution of household income|
|Industrial production growth rate||9.00%|
|Investment volume||23.1% of GDP|
|National debt||54.20% of GDP|
|Foreign exchange reserves||$ 3,147,000,000|
|Number of visitors||770,000|
New regional councils were elected in March 92, but Oromo’s Liberation Front declared at the same time that it withdrew from the Representative Council, which, with its 87 members, was the identification of the Provisional Government.
- According to AllCityPopulation, the capital city of Ethiopia is Addis Ababa with a population of 4,592,000 with suburbs (UN estimate 2019). Other major cities include Mekele with a population of 505,000, Dire Dawa with a population of 391,000, Nazret with a population of 362,000, Gondar with a population of 347,000 (UN estimate 2019).
The transitional government undertook to implement market economy, stimulate agricultural production and reduce poverty, all within the framework of a 5-year program coordinated by UN organizations and the World Bank. In January 93, extensive student demonstrations were conducted during the visit to the country by UN Secretary General, Butros Butros-Ghali. The demonstrations showed that the country continued to be characterized by strong social tensions.
In 1994, the $ 1.2 billion transfer to the country was significantly delayed. They should be used ifbm. the agreed 5-year economic reconstruction program, but the foreign organizations considered that the government’s privatization program went too slow. The program, which had otherwise been praised by the IMF and the World Bank, was criticized by humanitarian aid organizations, which stated that it was necessary to make major investments in seeds, tools and cattle.
The famine became critical during the first 6 months of 94 – especially in the southern part of the country. In May, the Representative Council, with its 87 members, adopted a new constitution for Ethiopia’s federal Democratic Republic. The project was based on the “ethnic federalism” doctrine, which was a violation of the former government’s unified view of the country. According to the adopted text, “it is the nations, the nationalities and the people of Ethiopia who hold supremacy in the country” – and not the people as a whole.
In June, elections were held to elect a constitutional assembly. However, it was boycotted by major opposition parties such as Oromo’s Liberation Front and Ogaden’s National Liberation Front. In September, police conducted mass arrests in the western part of the country, mainly populated by Oromos. Several human rights organizations such as Amnesty International expressed concern about the situation in the country.