Meaning of Enzymes

What are enzymes:

In the field of biology, enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions of the metabolism. The word, in this sense, is composed from the Greek roots ἐν (en), which means ‘in’, and ζύμη (zymè), which translates ‘yeast’.

As such, enzymes are found in every organ and every cell of the body, helping the body to produce the chemical changes necessary to ensure compliance with all vital functions. These chemical changes caused by the action of enzymes called enzymatic reactions.

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As such, the enzymes Act on molecules called substrates, which, subjected to a process of transformation through the enzymatic reaction, pass its name to products. Enzymes, on the other hand, are consumed in this process, nor its chemical balance is altered.

Enzymes are capable of catalyzing more than four thousand different biochemical processes. Among them we can mention, for example, the process of decomposition of the food we consume for the benefit of our body, or blood clotting when we suffer a wound.

The names of enzymes, on the other hand, typically derived from the substrate or the chemical reaction that catalyze, with the word end in the suffix “-handle”, as, for example, lactase, which comes from a lactose substrate. According to the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, there are six major classes of enzymes: the Oxidoreductase, the transferases, HYDROLASES, the lyase, the isomerases and ligases the.

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On the other hand, the enzymes are also used in industry for the production of food and biofuels, as well as the synthesis of antibiotics or the preparation of cleaning products.

Restriction enzyme

A restriction, also known as restriction endonuclease enzyme, is a bacterial enzyme used in genetic manipulation. The enzyme of restriction, in this sense, is able to identify a sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule and cut the DNA at a specific point, i.e. has the ability to fragment DNA selectively.

Digestive enzymes

As digestive enzymes called to the set of enzymes that are specifically responsible for the processes of decomposition of food in animal organisms. In this sense, digestive enzymes found in saliva and gastric juices, both the pancreatic juice and intestinal secretions.

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