Mongolia Economy and Society


Mongolia’s economy, largely integrated and led by the USSR since 1948, is based on livestock, an activity that employs more than half of the workforce, representing 38% of the total. Before practiced according to traditional methods (cattle nomads), today it is developed in extensive collective and state farms. In the stages that can be used as permanent pastures (80% of the surface), the breeding is carried out, the top sector of which is sheep, followed by horses, camels, cattle and goats.

Agricultural activity

The agricultural activity, developed on a small area, provides crops of wheat, barley, oats, potatoes and fodder that allow self-sufficiency.


The industrial sector, which absorbs 18% of the active population and is mainly nourished by agricultural activity, has industries of milk, meat, hides, skins and wool and, to a lesser extent, flour, alcohol, beer and construction (cement, bricks, wood). The industrial establishments concentrated in the urban centers are for the most part state-owned and cooperatives. The most important and recent industrial development has been metallurgical (first transformation of minerals). Significant amounts of copper, molybdenum, coal, lignite, as well as oil are extracted, which has a refinery in Sain-Sand, having more recently started the extraction of fluorite, gold, tungsten, alabaster, manganese, zinc, tungsten and salt. The extractive activity is managed by the Soviets, who import almost all of the mineral production.


Livestock products and by-products (wool, hides, cattle, meat, fats) and minerals constitute 90% of exports. Industrial consumer goods, machinery and equipment are imported. The countries of the former Soviet Union absorb 80% of exports, while the remaining 20% is distributed among Eastern European countries. The railway network, from N to SE, connects the industrial and mining centers with each other and connects the N with the Trans-Siberian network.


The official language is Mongolian.

Social development


The population, whose distribution is very irregular, is concentrated mainly in the northern mountainous regions and in their urban centers, the most important of which is Ulan Bator (1/4 of the population), hosting the southern regions and the other cities a small number of residents. The sedentary lifestyle of ranchers, traditionally nomads, has been promoted. Almost the entire population is of Mongolian origin, although there are Russian and Chinese minorities, with an important political and economic role.


Artistic forms of expression

Mongolian painting, music, and literature are influenced by Tibetan Buddhism and Nomadism. The ritual dance of Tsam, inspired by nomadism and shamanism, alludes to the passing of things and has as its objective the expulsion of evil spirits and the consequent purification.

Among the artistic forms of expression there is a type of song called Khoomi, which consists of the production of guttural musical sounds in harmonic tones, which leads some artists to achieve different sounds at the same time. Since 1944, the Mongolian language uses the modified Russian Cyrillic alphabet; and recently there has been a revised transcription of the epic songs compiled in the great chronicle “Secret History of the Mongols”, written around the middle of the thirteenth century.


According to Andyeducation, the majority of the population professes the Lamaist religion and is made up of Mongols and Chinese and Russian minorities.


Gastronomy in Mongolia contains part of its history, it is varied and complete, with important regional and seasonal differences. However, all latos have in common their high protein content.

Popular dishes

Despite the fact that their favorite dishes are made with meat, in winter, and dairy products, in summer, they have not been able to completely separate themselves from the Chinese in the matter of rice, who continue to eat in large quantities.

Among the most popular dishes, it is worth mentioning the Boortsog, a butter and meat cake that accompanies the traditional Suutei Tsai or salty tea. Boodog, which is roast meat with aromatic spices, is also very popular. Sausages, cheese, butterand yogurt are very common.

Without a doubt the famous and popular Mongolian dish is Steak tartare, ground beef, made of lemon with different ingredients. Mongolian cuisine is characterized by its strong flavors and its large number of spices. Another of the typical dishes is the Mongolian Pot, in which noodles, vegetables and pieces of cecina (beef) are introduced, which is cooked in a few minutes.

Lamb is usually eaten in the mountains, while in desert areas camel and horse meats predominate. Fats and vegetables are usually part of the majority of the specialties. Restaurants serving traditional cuisine can be found in Ulan Bator.


To drink the high quality Vodka is inevitable, there are also good beers. Between hours you can take the famous Suutei Tsai or salty tea, or the Koumiss or fermented milk.

Mongolia Economy

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